Harnessing Artificial Intelligence for Enhanced Information Security Risk Assessment and Threat Intelligence  – Author: Gordon Fiifi Donkoh


In the constantly evolving landscape of cyber threats, maintaining robust information security has become an essential aspect of organizational resilience. As the volume and sophistication of threats grows, traditional methods of risk assessment and threat intelligence gathering are being outpaced. Senior management are more concerned about organizational risks that are related to information systems (Joint Task Force Transformation Initiative, 2011) and this requires operating at a higher pace and level to ensure risk management is conducted effectively. According to (Arif Ali Mughal, 2018) , Artificial Intelligence (AI) emerges as a transformative solution, offering unparalleled capabilities in predicting, identifying, and responding to security threats with speed and precision. This article delves into the integration of AI in information security risk assessment and threat intelligence, exploring its benefits, applications, and the future trajectory.

AI in Information Security Risk Assessment

Risk assessment in information security involves evaluating the potential threats to an organization’s data and determining the vulnerability of its systems. Traditional risk assessment methods often rely on manual analysis, which is not only time-consuming but also susceptible to human error. In a study by (Iqbal H. Sarker, 2021) AI presents great methods such as machine learning and deep learning and other relevant methods which as intelligently used tackle cybersecurity issues. The study goes on to mention AI-based modeling can be used in various problem domains ranging from malware analysis to risky behavior identification that might lead to a phishing attack or malicious code. As such it can be said that AI revolutionizes this process by:

  • Data Processing and Analysis: In a study by (Arif Ali Mughal, 2018) AI can process vast amounts of data at an unprecedented pace, identifying patterns and anomalies that may indicate potential risks. Machine learning algorithms, trained on historical data, can predict future risk scenarios by recognizing trends and correlating disparate data points.
  • Vulnerability Identification: As (Arif Ali Mughal, 2018) states the processing ability of AI in processing vast amount of data it can thus be said that AI-powered tools can continuously scan systems for vulnerabilities, often detecting them faster than human analysts. According to a study by (S. Dasgupta, B. V. Yelikar, Ramnarayan, S. Naredla, R. K. Ibrahim and M. B. Alazzam, 2023), “AI-powered cybersecurity has the potential to transform the way banks detect and respond to cyber threats in digital banking”, this by complementing methods and techniques indicated in the study by (Iqbal H. Sarker, 2021). These tools can also prioritize vulnerabilities based on potential impact, allowing security teams to address the most critical issues first.
  • Adaptive Risk Modeling: AI algorithms can adapt to new information, refining their risk models over time per the study of (Iqbal H. Sarker, 2021). (PWC, 2021) states in a report that “AI will revolutionize cybersecurity, due to its superior ability to scan enormous volumes of data for anomalies and flag up risk”. This means that as new threats emerge, the AI system can learn and adjust its risk assessments to remain relevant and accurate.

AI in Threat Intelligence

Threat intelligence involves collecting and analyzing information about emerging or existing threat actors and their tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), considering the capabilities of AI in Cybersecurity according to various reports including those mentioned by (PWC, 2021). According to (Brian P. Kime, 2015), The Cyber Threats Intelligence Cycle is a systematic, continuous process of analyzing potential threats to detect a suspicious set of activities that might threaten the organization’s systems, networks, information, employees, or customers by providing a means of visualizing and assessing a number of specific intrusion sensor inputs and open source information to infer specific threat courses of action. AI can thus be leveraged in boosting Cyber Security posture (PWC, 2021).  With AI’s capabilities in processing vast amount of data, insights etc., according to (Jana Subramanian, 2023) in a blogpost, it is mentioned that “AI can be used to analyze large amounts of data to identify potential threats. It can also be used to develop new algorithms that can detect and prevent new types of attacks” this in a cyclic manner is very beneficial to cyber threat intelligence. With the many methods, techniques and capabilities identified, it can be said that AI enhances threat intelligence by:

  • Real-time Analysis: AI systems can analyze threat data in real-time, providing immediate insights into potential attacks. This capability is crucial for early detection and response to cyber threats.
  • Predictive Capabilities: Utilizing predictive analytics, AI can forecast potential threat activities. By understanding the behavior of hackers and malware, AI can alert security teams about the likelihood of an attack before it occurs.
  • Automated Response: Upon detecting a threat, AI can initiate automated responses to mitigate the attack. For instance, if a network intrusion is detected, the AI system can isolate the affected segment to prevent the spread of the threat.
  • Enhanced Decision Making: AI can assist cybersecurity professionals in making informed decisions by providing them with comprehensive threat landscapes and suggesting optimal response strategies.

The Future of AI in Information Security

In the future, AI will be widely used to detect and respond to cyber threats more quickly and accurately than humans. AI will be able to learn to spot patterns and anomalies that might indicate a threat, and it will be able to respond to threats automatically, such as by isolating affected systems, shutting down certain operations, or even initiating countermeasures against the source of the attack (Jana Subramanian, 2023). Overall, AI has the potential to make a significant impact on cybersecurity by helping organizations to better protect themselves from cyber threats. The future of AI in information security points towards more autonomous, intelligent systems capable of not just defending against attacks but also anticipating them. A study by (H. Chaudhary, A. Detroja, P. Prajapati and P. Shah, 2020) concluded that, Artificial Intelligence systems if fed with enough data can work well at predicting such attacks so that we can stop them. Future developments may include:

  • Advanced Predictive Analytics: Enhanced algorithms that offer more accurate predictions of where, when, and how attacks might occur.
  • Integrated AI Security Architectures: Comprehensive security frameworks where AI is seamlessly integrated with other security components.
  • AI and Human Collaboration: More sophisticated interfaces for AI-human collaboration, ensuring that AI supports rather than replaces human decision-makers.


The integration of AI into information security risk assessment and threat intelligence represents a significant shift in how organizations approach their defense strategies. By leveraging AI’s advanced analytical capabilities, organizations can not only respond to threats more effectively but also anticipate and mitigate them before they materialize. As we continue to refine AI technology and address its challenges, its role in safeguarding our digital infrastructure becomes increasingly pivotal.


Arif Ali Mughal. (2018). Artificial Intelligence in Information Security:Exploring the Advantages, Challenges, and Future Directions. Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Management.

Brian P. Kime. (2015). Threat Intelligence: Planning and Direction. SANS Institute.

H. Chaudhary, A. Detroja, P. Prajapati and P. Shah. (2020). A review of various challenges in cybersecurity using Artificial Intelligence. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). Thoothukudi, India: IEEE. doi:10.1109/ICISS49785.2020.9316003

(2021). Improve Your Cyber Security Posture With Artificial Intelligence. PWC. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.com/ng/en/assets/pdf/cybersecurity-ai-posture.pdf

Iqbal H. Sarker. (2021). AI-Driven Cybersecurity: An Overview, Security Intelligence. Preprints. doi:doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0457.v1

Jana Subramanian. (2023, June 25). Securing the Future: Role of Artificial Intelligence in Cybersecurity and Data Privacy. Retrieved from SAP: 2023

Joint Task Force Transformation Initiative. (2011). Managing Information Security Risk: Organization, Mission, and Information System View. Retrieved 11 5, 2023, from https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-39/final

PWC. (2021). Balancing Power and Protection: AI in Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity in AI. PWC. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.com/m1/en/publications/documents/pwc-balancing-power-protection-ai-cybersecurity.pdf

S. Dasgupta, B. V. Yelikar, Ramnarayan, S. Naredla, R. K. Ibrahim and M. B. Alazzam. (2023). 2023 3rd International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering (ICACITE). Greater Noida, India: IEEE. doi:10.1109/ICACITE57410.2023.10182479.